Top 5 Nobel Prize Winners
Alfred Nobel was an inventor and businessman, and at the time of his death on 10 December 1896, he had 355 patents worldwide – one of them was the patent on dynamite. According to his will, Alfred Nobel’s enormous fortune was to be used to establish prizes to award those who had done their best to benefit mankind in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901, five years after Nobel’s death. The Nobel Laureates are announced at the beginning of October each year. A couple of months later, on 10 December, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death, they receive their prizes from the Swedish King – a Nobel diploma, a medal, and 10 million Swedish crowns per prize. One of the most famous Nobel Prize winners through the history certainly left great impact of the world. Here are their names.
#1. Marie Curie & Co.
Marie Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes, and is one of only two people in the history of the Nobels to win in two different fields. She and her husband Pierre, along with Henri Becquerel, won the Physics Prize in 1903 for their discovery of radioactivity. Nine years later, she won the award for chemistry for discovering the elements radium and polonium and investigating their properties. On top of Marie and Pierre’s wins, their daughter Irene Joliot-Curie received the chemistry prize in 1935 together with her husband, Frédéric. And Henry Labouisse, the husband of Marie Curie’s second daughter, was the director of UNICEF when the international organization won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965.
#2. Sir Alexander Fleming & Co.
In 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine went to Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Chain and Sir Howard Florey for their discovery of penicillin, a fungus, and its use as an antibiotic. Sir Alexander made the discovery accidentally when he ate a piece of moldy bread and became cured of an infectious disease. Fleming went away on vacation in August 1928 and returned to his laboratory in early September to discover that a fungus had developed in a stack of Petri dishes containing bacteria. The bacteria had died in the dishes immediately surrounding the fungus, while bacteria in the dishes farther away were unaffected. Fleming spent the next couple of decades investigating the antibacterial effects of what he at first called “mould juice” and later named “penicillin” after the fungus’ genus (Penicillium). Chain and Florey contributed by conducting rigorous clinical trials that proved the great usefulness of penicillin and figuring out how to purify and produce it in bulk.
#3. The Red Cross
The International Committee of the Red Cross has won the most Nobel Prizes of any other person or entity that was ever nominated. It won Peace Prizes in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the First and Second World Wars, and a third Peace Prize in 1963, along with the League of Red Cross Societies, marking the 100th anniversary of its founding.
#4. Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa – She was a Roman Catholic nun of Albanian ethnicity and Indian citizenship, born in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. In 1950 she founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta, India where she spent the next 45 years ministering to the poor, sick, orphaned and dying people, while overseeing the Missionaries of Charity’s gradual expansion throughout and beyond India. At the time of her death in 1997, she had already done 610 missions in 123 countries, including hospices and homes for people with HIV, leprosy and tuberculosis; soup kitchens; children’s and family counseling programs; orphanages and schools. Mother Teresa won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. Following her death, she was beatified by Pope John Paul II and given the title Blessed Teresa of Calcutta.
#5. Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for discovering the cause of the “photoelectric effect.” This was a perplexing phenomenon in which atoms, when bombarded with light, emitted electrons. In 1905, Einstein argued that light was divided into discrete packets (photons). He theorized that, when these light packets struck atoms, electrons in those atoms absorbed them, and, with the extra energy, wrested free of the atoms that bound them. He also came up with the theories of special and general relativity, and discovered that matter and energy are equivalent (as embodied in the equation E=mc²).